Alabama Parenting Questionnaire

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) is a copyright protected measure of several dimensions of parenting that have proven to be important for understanding the causes of conduct problems and delinquency in youth:  Positive Reinforcement, Parental Involvement, Inconsistent Discipline, Poor Monitoring and Supervision, and Harsh Discipline.  There are several versions of the APQ:  APQ Child Global ReportAPQ Child Telephone Interview, APQ Parent Global Report, and APQ Parent Telephone Interview.   Researchers are free to download and use the APQ free of charge in their work.   The only requirement is that the instructions, item wording, and item response format not be changed.   Also, copies of any publications using the APQ should be sent to to be added to a reference list.

There is no manual for the APQ.  Thus, this APQ reference list is the best source of information on the various ways the APQ has been scored and used in research.  Several studies, which describe the development of the APQ, its subscale structure, and initial tests of its validity can be obtained here.

Essau, C.A., Sasagawa, S., & Frick, P.J.  (2006).  Psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire.  Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 597-616.

Frick, P.J., Christian, R.C. & Wootton, J.M. (1999). Age trends in the association between parenting practices and conduct problems. Behavior Modification, 23, 106-128.

Shelton, K.K., Frick, P.J., & Wootton, J. (1996). The assessment of parenting practices in families of elementary school-aged children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 317-327.

There have been a number of approved translations of the APQ .  To use one of these translated versions, please contact the author of the appropriate version.  If you are interested in making a translation that is not included in this list, please send a request to